کنفرانس زن و مطالعات جنسیتی در خاورمیانه

محل برگزاری: دانشگاه آمریکایی بیروت

تاریخ اعتبار: 1398/08/08



The Association for Middle East Women’s Studies (AMEWS) is pleased to invite submissions of abstracts for an international conference on gender and women’s studies in the Middle East in the second week of March 2021 in Beirut, Lebanon, in partnership with local universities (American University of Beirut and Lebanese American University).  This is the first AMEWS conference in the Middle East.  The conference engages scholars from multiple locations in and outside of the region, on the cutting-edge topics propelling research on gender and women’s studies in the Middle East  and with populations in the diaspora. The call is open to the broad range of topics on gender and women’s studies in the social sciences and humanities: politics, economics, history, sexuality, culture, arts, digital humanities and so forth. The abstracts will be reviewed and thematically organized.  There may be invited speakers and sessions.  AMEWS expects to be able to fund the travel, accommodations and catering for the majority of the participants, with funding priority going to those residing in the Middle East.  Several products are planned, including publications and engagements with NGO’s and other local organizations committed to gender issues.  For more information about AMEWS, see: http://amews.org/  and The Journal of Middle East Women’s Studies,https://www.dukeupress.edu/Societies/journal-of-middle-east-womens-studies.  If you are interested in participating, please send an abstract (250 words) on a topic of your interest – include in the abstract why you believe this is a pressing topic.

Abstract template:



Affiliation :


Snail Mail:

Title of paper :

Abstract of 250 words.

Please send your abstracts to Angie Abdelmonem :angie.abdelmonem@asu.edu

The deadline for sending abstracts is  October 30, 2019.

Planning Committee: Fatima Sadiqi, Chair; Hanadi Al-Samman, Angie Abdelmonem, Louise Cainkar, Amaney Jamal, Suad Joseph

کنفرانس طب و طبابت در متون مقدس یهودی، مسیحی و اسلامی

تاریخ اعتبار: 97/12/09


Medicine in Bible and Talmud” CALL FOR PAPERS 2019 – Ancient Medical Expertise and Healing Experts

European Association of Biblical Studies (EABS), Warsaw –  11-14 August 2019

Finals Submission date: 28 FEBRUARY 2019

For the research unit “Medicine in Bible and Talmud” convened by Markham J. Geller and Lennart Lehmhaus and supported by the Collaborative Research Center SFB 980 “Episteme in Motion”, Freie Universitaet Berlin (http://www.sfb-episteme.de/en/teilprojekte/sagen/A03/index.html), we welcome contributions on ancient medicine and knowledge that fall into the general scope of our research unit as outlined on our website (https://www.eabs.net/EABS/Research-Units/Research_Units/Research_Units_2019/Medicine_in_Bible_and_Talmud.aspx).

For the next meeting in Warsaw 2019 we invite proposals for individual presentations or for pre-organized panel-sessions on the theme, “Even the best among doctors is destined for Gehenna/Hell- ancient medical expertise and healing experts”. The thematic sessions will deal with questions of experts and expertise in various medical and religious cultures of (Late) Antiquity, ideally from a comparative perspective.

Thematic Outline

It has become a common notion that the ancient “medical marketplace” was not populated by competing medical schools and high-profile medical authors alone. Rather, this was a crowded arena with a variety of actors, in which different types and fields (e.g. medical subfields, botany, pharmaceutics, astrology/astronomy, religion, and philosophy) of related expertise merged, complemented but also fiercely contested each other. Healing expertise comprised various approaches (diagnosis/prognosis; recipes, diet, and other cures including amulets and incantations; divination, dream interpretation, dream healing and incubation; charismatic healing) in different contexts (private households, a doctor’s or pharmacist’s house, public places, temples, churches, monasteries etc.). What was the attitude of so-called political, intellectual or religious elites (like priests, rabbinic sages, philosophers, medical authors, Christian clergy, heads of academies etc.) to and their involvement in the field of medicine? Do ancient sources relate to the role of women as healing experts and to what extent may one discern a gender bias that reflect hierarchies of authority or prerogatives of male “legit” experts against “illicit” female healing personnel?

In a dialogue with current research on ancient medicine and sciences, this panel aims at discussing how medical and related types of expertise manifests itself in and were appropriated to different, overlapping traditions, practices, and socio-historical settings. This pertains to traditions that were primarily associated with religious and normative discourse and (ritual) practices such as medical (technical) information integrated in religious texts and contexts (biblical, rabbinic, early Christian and Islamic, mystical etc.). However, is also aims at medical traditions that developed in dialogue with or contained philosophical and theological questions.

How do authority and authorship interlace? Which strategies of self-fashioning, claims to expertise and superior knowledge techniques (theories, taxonomies, empiricism) play a major role, also for the transmission of certain knowledge? Papers can also address the framing of medical expertise in specific genres like case (hi)stories, question and answer formats, anecdotes and other narratives. May one discern some striking differences between so-called miraculous healing stories and other healing narratives? Alternatively, do these various approaches mix within our sources? How do language and narratives about illness and health function among and between patients and doctors in different traditions and various healing contexts? What other aspects and cultural specificities may we observe in the interaction between different medical experts, on the one hand, and between patients and the healing experts they attended to, on the other?

As mentioned in the research unit’s description, we welcome papers that relate to one or more of these issues in relevant traditions and periods, if possible, with a comparative (synchronic or diachronic perspective), while discussing the central theoretical or methodological assumptions and challenges involved.


Please submit your proposal until 28 February 2019 via the electronic system: https://www.eabs.net/EABS/Abstract_system/Call_for_papers_Warsaw_2019.aspx

Please, send it also to the chairs of this research unit

Markham J. Geller      m.geller@ucl.ac.uk

Lennart Lehmhaus     lennart.lehmhaus@fu-berlin.de

مکتب صوفیه و فلسفه: داد و ستدها

تاریخ اعتبار: 1397/09/24

The intellectual history of Sufism is intertwined with that of philosophy in the Islamic world. This conference will explore and re-examine the relationship between Sufism and philosophy.

From the mystical strains in the writings of Avicenna and Ibn Ṭufayl to the philosophical Sufism of Ibn ʿArabī’s school, the encounter between Islamic mysticism and philosophy has produced a rich nexus of mutual influence and rapprochement, as well as polemical engagement and debate.

Despite the extent and significance of such interactions, modern scholars in the fields of Sufism and Islamic philosophy alike have often been reluctant to venture beyond the conventional boundaries of their respective disciplines and investigate the links that tie Sufi thought to the philosophical traditions of the Muslim world. The aim of this conference is to provide a forum for a cross-disciplinary exploration and re-examination of the relationship between Sufism and philosophy. Key discussion-points include: A) Sufism’s reception of ancient and late antique philosophical traditions. When did this process begin, how did it manifest itself, and through which channels did it occur? B) Falsafa’s interaction with classical Sufism. What impact did the mystical aspects of Avicenna’s thought have on the subsequent development of Islamic philosophy? Have such aspects been over-emphasized or under-estimated? C) ‘Philosophical Sufism’ in the post-classical era. How apt is this label? To what extent did the members of Ibn ʿArabī’s school adopt or engage with theories propounded by al-Fārābī, Avicenna, Suhrawardī or the Ikhwān al-Ṣafāʾ?
Confirmed speakers include:….. بیشتر بخوانید

هفتمین همایش بين المللی فلسفه دين معاصر

هفتمین همایش بين المللي فلسفه دين معاصر
فلسفه دین مقایسه ای (2): مبانی و مسائل
– چیستی فلسفه دین مقایسه ای
– امکان و تحقق فلسفه دین مقایسه ای
– روش فلسفه دین مقایسه¬ای
– پیش فرض های فلسفه دین مقایسه ای
– تاثیر سنخ دین در مسائل فلسفه دین
– تعریف دین در فلسفه دین های مختلف
– مفهوم خدا یا امر متعالی
– براهین اثبات خدا/امر قدسی
– تجربه دینی و وحی
– زندگی پس از مرگ (جاودانگی انسان)
– مساله شر
– عقل و ایمان
– رابطه خدا و طبیعت (نسبت خدا و جهان)
– زبان دین
– معنای زندگی
– حقانیت و نجات و کثرت گرایی دینی
– صفات و افعال الهی
– خاستگاه دین
– انتظار بشر از دین و کارکردهای دین
– گفتگوی ادیان
– دین و اخلاق

……….. بیشتر بخوانید

کارگاه بررسی ترجمه های لاتینی، سریانی و یونانی قرآن از قرن اول هجری تا دورۀ مدرن

کارگاه بررسی ترجمه های لاتینی، سریانی و یونانی قرآن از قرن اول هجری تا دورۀ مدرن
برلین: پروژه کورپوس کورانیکوم
زمان: پنجم تا هفتم دسامبر 2018


We are delighted to announce the Call for Papers for our workshop ‘Preliminary Considerations on the Corpus Coranicum Christianum. The Quran in Translation – A Survey of the State-of-the-Art’ at the Freie Universität Berlin (Germany), December 5th – 7th, 2018
. In this workshop, we aim to lay the groundwork for an interdisciplinary research project, which will focus on comparing the different translations of the Quran made within Christian cultural backgrounds. The project will study the Quran and its reception from the Christian perspective by analyzing all Greek, Syriac, and Latin translations of the Quran from the 7th century CE until the Early Modern period.The keynote speech will be delivered by Professor Angelika Neuwirth, head of the project Corpus Coranicum (CC) at the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities. The workshop aims to map out the different scholars and research traditions dealing with varied translations of the Quran. In addition, it seeks to connect these experts and to facilitate the scientific exchange between the multitude of studies previously conducted in this field. Finally, the workshop will examine the possibilities of using methods in the Digital Humanities for building an open-access database for systematically collecting and presenting the material for further research.The structure of the planned project will correspond with the languages that will be analyzed. The Corpus Coranicum Christianum (CCC) shall, in a first step, consist of the three subprojects: Corpus Coranicum Byzantinum (CCB), Corpus Coranicum Syriacum (CCS), and Corpus Coranicum Latinum (CCL). Papers for the workshop are welcome in one or more of the following four sections:

• Greek translations of the Quran (CCB)
• Syriac translations of the Quran (CCS)
• Latin translations of the Quran (CCL)
• Digital Humanities (DH)

The workshop is focused on interdisciplinary research, which will, the organizers hope, encourage fruitful discussions about the state-of-the-art of the field and highlight potential areas for future research cooperation. For this purpose, we welcome abstracts of up to 300 words, to be submitted in English by May 31st, 2018 to: corpus.coranicum.christianum@klassphil.fu-berlin.de. Abstracts should include your name, affiliation, position, the title of the proposed paper, your specific source(s) you want to work on, and a brief curriculum vitae. Please also indicate the preferred section (see above: CCB, CCS, CCL, DH). Notifications will be sent out in June 2018. Full papers should be submitted by 15th November, 2018. Limited funding will be available for accommodation and/or travel. Proposed workshop languages: English, German, Spanish, and French. Papers will be published as edited volume.

The project initiative Corpus Coranicum Christianum is financed by the Presidency of the Freie Universität Berlin. For further information about the structure of the planned project and for a more detailed Call for Papers, please visit our website.

فراخوان مقاله: تصویری از مکتب صوفیه

تاریخ انتشار: ۱۳۹۶/۰۷/۲۵
تاریخ اعتبار: ۱۳۹۶/۰۸/۰۹

کنفرانس و کارگاه در دانشگاه بن آلمان

هزینه سفر مولفان مقالات پذیرفته شده پرداخت میشود

Topic and Aim

From the Late Medieval Period onward many Sufi treatises began to display an increasing amount of visual elements, mainly in the form of diagrams, which can either have an auxiliary function, i.e. to help explain the contents of specific written passages, or be themselves at the very core of the text.

A comprehensive study aiming to understand the significance and diffusion of such visual devices in Sufi literature—involving such disparate disciplines as Philology, History of the Book and Codicology on the one hand, and Intellectual History and the History of Ideas on the other—has never been systematically undertaken. With special regard to the development of Islamicate Intellectual History, it would seem that the qualitative and quantitative leap in the diffusion of diagrams in Sufi literature was paralleled by the spread and reception of Ibn ‘Arabī’s (d. 638/1240) works in which diagrams are often employed.

This workshop aims at investigating to which extent the diffusion of visual elements was one of the chief novelties and specific features of Sufi literature to develop in the Late Medieval and Early Modern period. Acquiring a clear and detailed understanding of this phenomenon will also help us investigate the dialogical interactions between Sufism and philosophical, alchemical and magical literatures in which analogous diagrams are often employed. Obtaining a better knowledge of the phenomenon I suggested labelling “Visual Sufism” will also permit us to address the question of possible intellectual osmosis, in particular with the Jewish Kabbalah, in which similar visual tools started to flourish at almost exactly the same time in works by authors who in many cases acted in an Islamicate environment, knew Arabic and were acquainted with Islamic philosophical literature (see Giulio Busi, Qabbalah Visiva, Turin 2005).

This invitation aims at bringing together for the first time a group of specialists in the field to contribute to a workshop and collected volume on the theme of Visual Sufism. Visual Sufism will be investigated from different angles through the lens of multiple authors who employed images and diagrams within their Sufi works. Preliminary questions for the workshop include the following: which hypotheses can be suggested about the use of diagrams in Sufi literature? Was this trend linked to specific historical contexts, to the rise of new disciplines, or the appearance of new styles, ideas, or theories in Sufism? Do the authors provide any theory (even embryonic) for the utilisation of diagrams in their texts? To which extent do the texts refer to the social environment in order to justify the use of diagrams? Was the use of diagrams related to specific topics and, if so, which are they? What can be said about the specific use each author made of diagrams? Are there various typologies of diagrams? Is the use of diagrams consistent in different works of an author? Is it possible to individuate interdependences between diagrams found in different works written by one or more authors (i.e. can we actually discern a shared visual language here)? Did the presence of diagrams play any role in the reception of the texts at issue? Can we asses an evolution and development of the use of diagrams in time and space?

Contributions on key authors such as Aḥmad al-Būnī (d. 622 or 630/1225 or 1232), Saʿd al-Dīn Ḥammūʾī (d. 650/1253), Faḍl Allāh Astarābādī (d. 796/1394) and Shīrīn Maghribī (d. 809‒۱۰/۱۴۰۶‒۸), have already been secured.

Contributions on Ibn al-ʿArabī (d. 638/1240), Ḥaydar Āmulī (d. after 787/1385), Bayezit Halife (d. 922/1512) or on any other Sufi author from the period 1200‒۱۶۰۰ who made use of diagrams and visual elements in their works are warmly welcome.

Workshop Organization

The workshop will involve a maximum of 8 presenters.
Each talk should be between 30 and 40 minutes long and will be followed by a 20-minute Q&A session.
The language of the workshop will be English.
Taking into account the topic of the workshop the use of PowerPoint is strongly encouraged.
Accommodation and travel costs will be covered by the Alexander von Humboldt Kolleg for Islamicate Intellectual History (1200‒۱۶۰۰).
After the workshop, the papers will be published in the form of a peer-reviewed volume, edited by Dr. Giovanni Maria Martini, to be published in the series Islamicate Intellectual History (Brill, eds. Shahzad Bashir, Heidrun Eichner and Judith Pfeiffer).

Time Frame

Please submit your proposal by October 31, 2017, including the title of the contribution, an abstract of about 500 words and a brief CV to giovannimaria.martini@uni-bonn.de.
The revision process will start immediately after the deadline and the results are expected to be communicated to the applicants by November 15, 2017.
The workshop will take place on Monday 14 May 2018 at the Alexander von Humboldt Kolleg for Islamicate Intellectual History (1200‒۱۶۰۰) at the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn.
The first draft of the full article will be due by August 20, 2018 (12,000‒۱۸,۰۰۰ words exclusive of the bibliography).

For any further information, please contact Dr. Giovanni Maria Martini at giovannimaria.martini@uni-bonn.de.

کنفرانس حقوق بشر، مهاجرت و حاکمیت جهانی

محل برگزاری: ایتالیا
تاریخ اعتبار: ۱۳۹۶/۱۱/۱۶

Human Rights, Migration, and Global Governance

For Secretary-General António Guterres, who was the High Commissioner for Refugees for a decade (2005–۲۰۱۵) before being elected to lead the UN, one of the most pressing issues currently facing the world body is the large-scale voluntary and involuntary (forced) movement of people across borders. While 2018 marks the 70th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, political, economic, and environmental dysfunction and collapse in their own countries has driven a record high number of people to seek a safer or better life elsewhere. Equally present especially in the West, have been counter-reactions to immigration based on political, social, economic, and security concerns. One reason the United Kingdom is leaving the European Union, with Prime Minister Theresa May triggering “Brexit”, is because of voters’ concerns over the perceived threat of uncontrollable migration. President Trump likewise won office in the US election in part by appealing to many American voters’ fears of immigrants – whether from Mexico (the ‘wall’) or from conflict zones such as Syria.

The global governance and human rights issues in this contemporary era are manifest and complex. The Sustainable Development Goals will be impossible to achieve in the context of state failure, political conflicts, major climate disruptions, and mass population displacements. The rights of citizens also must be balanced against the rights of those fleeing persecution and desperation; more often, the latter are disregarded as populist movements refocus national discourses away from cosmopolitan ideals. These complex ‘wicked problems’ present severe contemporary challenges for the institutions, as well as the idea (and ideals), of global governance.

We welcome proposals for individual workshop papers and full workshop panels addressing the following themes related to these dynamics, as well as other proposals related to topics of the United Nations, global governance and human rights:

>  Is support for global governance institutions, and for global human rights norms, declining as a result of resurgent populist movements?

>  Has support for the international refugee regime declined?

>  What global governance and human rights challenges arise from the increasing mobility of people?

>  What are the links between development, migration and human rights, and how do these relate to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals?….. بیشتر بخوانید

کارگاه بررسی نسخه های خطی: شیمی در فرهنگ اسلامی

تاریخ اعتبار: ۱۳۹۶/۰۵/۱۱
محل برگزاری: فرانکفورت


Alchemy was a widespread practice in the Islamicate world that was taught from early on to the 19th/20th century. In spite of its popularity attested to by historical references as well as the wealth of alchemical manuscripts that have come down to us, the study of Arabo-Islamic alchemy has been neglected for the last decades. Only recently have we seen a renewed interest in the field, giving rise to a number of publications.

Among its extensive collection of Oriental manuscripts, Gotha Research Library also houses a significant number of alchemical manuscripts (for the Gotha alchemical manuscripts in Arabic see Siggel, Katalog der arabischen alchemistischen Handschriften Deutschlands, vol. 2, Berlin 1950). The workshop aims at bringing together established and younger scholars working on alchemy and providing them with the opportunity to engage directly with the alchemical manuscripts of the Gotha collection. The exploratory character of the workshop refers not only to the direct engagement with the Gotha collection, but also extends to the field of Arabo-Islamic alchemy more generally. Possible questions to be discussed are: Which aspects of alchemy have received significant attention, what aspects deserve to be addressed more in the future? Which theoretical assumptions and methods have guided the research on alchemy, what theories and methods are relevant for future research? What are the current challenges in studying the alchemy of the Islamicate world and how could they be overcome?

We invite papers from a variety of disciplines (for ex. philology, philosophy, history of science, history of religion, art history, paleography), on all aspects of alchemy, for example on

the transmission of alchemical knowledge in different parts of the Islamicate world as well as between the Islamicate world and other regions
the role of manuscripts for the transmission of alchemical knowledge
codicological aspects of alchemical manuscripts
questions of authorship and dating
literary aspects of alchemical texts

To allow for a significant number of hands-on-sessions, preference will be given to papers dealing with Gotha manuscripts.

Please send a 400-word abstract to monika.hasenmueller@uni-erfurt.de not later than August 31, 2017.

The selected participants will be notified by October 30, 2017.

Costs for travel and accommodation will be covered, provided that external funding is granted.

The workshop is organized by the Gotha Research Library in collaboration with the project “Between Religion and Alchemy. The scholar Ibn Arfaʿ Raʾs (d. 1197) as a model for an integrative Arabic literary and cultural history”, University of Zurich.

هزار سال مکتب شیعه

تاریخ اعتبار: ۱۳۹۶/۰۷/۱۴
محل برگزاری: برلین

The Thousand Year School of Shīa: Kūfa, Ḥilla, Najaf, Al-Aḥsā, Baḥrain, Jabal āmil , Aleppo, Esfahan and Qum

“Shīa studies” nowadays is in the focus of interdisciplinary studies of many academic centers, research institutes and scholars. For this reason, and considering the importance of the exchange of ideas and approaches in Shi’a Studies, the Iran-House in Germany is calling for a two-day seminar on Shia studies entitled “The Thousand Year School of Shīa: Kūfa, Ḥilla, Najaf, Al-Aḥsā, Baḥrain, Jabal āmil , Aleppo, Esfahan and Qum.” With the aim of fostering the exchange between researchers and experts, the organizer would like to present the latest discussions and research outcomes on the following topics by experts:
۱. Historical Shia studies: •  From Shaykh Tūsī to Allāma ḥillī •  From Allāma ḥillī to Ākhund Khurāsānī (Author of Al-Kifaya  From Ākhund Khurāsānī up to date.
۲. Development of Shī’ite jurisprudence (Fiqh) by the founding of the Uṣūlī School by Allāma Waḥīd Bihbihānī in Karbala.
۳. The Science of Uṣūl of the Shiites
۴. Ethics (اخلاق) in the thinking and the spiritual attitude of the Shia
۵. The Shi’ite Seminaries (حوزه) and their teaching methods; Developments and diversities.
۶. Shi’ite Quran interpretation
۷. Permanent legacy of the Shia (manuscripts and their reach)
۸. Societal and political developments of Shia from the Tobacco boycott (Mīrzā Shīrāzī and Seyed Jamāl al-Dīn) to this day.
The conference will take place from October 6 – 8, 2017 in Berlin, after that you would have the opportunity to visit Frankfurt Book Fair. The conference languages are English, Arabic, and Persian.

کنفرانس بررسی ایده ها و منابع خوارج‎

محل برگزاری: آلمان
تاریخ اعتبار: ۱۲-۰۱-۲۰۱۶

خوارج در فرهنگ مسلمانان لقب گروههای افراطی و خشونت طلب در صدر اسلام است. این کنفرانس به بررسی اندیشه های آنان و منابع موجود در بارۀ آنان می پردازد.


Reconsidering Kharijism – CfP for panel at DOT 2017 (Jena/Germany)

Teresa Bernheimer and I are planning to put together a panel on “Reconsidering Kharijism in Early Islamic History” for the Deutscher Orientalistentag conference, to take place in Jena/Germany on 18-22 September 2017 (http://www.dot2017.de/en/). We’re looking for participants who are interested in contributing papers that seek to re-examine the established depiction of early Kharijism as sectarian, heretic, and excessively violent. We’d be very grateful if you circulated this CfP among colleagues and especially (MA/PhD) students. The deadline for panel submissions is end of March, so we’d kindly ask you to get in touch as soon as possible at hannah-lena.hagemann@uni-hamburg.de and/or tb31@soas.ac.uk. The panel description is as follows:

“Scholarship on the early period of Islam has concentrated on the political history of the Arab conquests and the development of Sunnism and Shiism as the major branches of the emerging religion. The history and role of what is commonly considered the third major branch, the ‘Kharijites’ (Arabic: khawarij, ‘those who go out’), a blanket term to describe groups of early Muslim rebels who apparently were neither supporters of the Alids nor of proto-Sunnism, has been largely neglected. The main reason for this neglect has been the reliance of scholarship on the mainstream literary sources. While this material is rich and varied, and includes many different kinds of writings (historical chronicles, theological manuals, biographical and legal works, and the like), the extant material mostly dates to the ninth and tenth centuries CE at the earliest— about two to three hundred years after the events it describes. It has been shown to be full of inconsistencies on minor and major issues, reflecting the concerns and debates of a very different period and context.

Particularly problematic with regard to the Kharijites is that reliance on these sources favours the centralizing narratives of later Sunnis and Shiʿites. Few Kharijite works have survived to tell a different story, and thus the Kharijites are depicted as violent rebels and quintessential heretics: the first ‘sect’ of Islam. Modern scholarship has broadly accepted the perspective of the mainstream tradition. There have been shorter studies on Kharijite sub-groups as well as heightened interest in the Ibadiyya in recent years; however, a proper (re-)examination of early Kharijism is not available, with the most detailed introductions written over 100 years ago (Brünnow 1884, and Wellhausen 1901).

This panel aims to bring together new considerations concerning the history and historiography of early Kharijite movements. By broadening the source base and conceptual perspective, the papers call into question the hitherto almost unchallenged connection between ‘political’ and ‘religious’ Kharijism and examine the extent to which the various Kharijite movements may be seen as anything other than (at most) loosely connected groups of insurgents, thus shedding new light on the intriguing phenomenon of ‘Kharijism’ in early Islam.”

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